Appendix 4: Environmental Issues and Strategies

Appendix 4: Environmental Issue, Focal Points of Intervention and Strategies
Focal Point of Intervention
 Environmental Issue: Soil Erosion
Cultivation on marginal land steep slopes river banks
  • Protection of Steep Slopes and River Banks 
  • Resettlement of People from Marginal Lands 
  • Rehabilitation of vacated marginal lands 
  • Promotion of Agro-forestry 
  • Construction of Permanent Physical Conservation structures
Mono-culture, Non-contour row cropping
  • Crop Rotation 
  • Contour Planting of all crops 
  • Promote Mixed and Inter-cropping by smallholder farmers
  • De-stocking 
  • Stall feeding 
  • Improvement of Communal pastures 
  • expand communal grazing land 
  • keep improved breeds 
  • Promotion of small ruminants
Infrastructure Development
  • Minimal Tree. Destruction when constructing roads 
  • Appropriate allocation of settlementsites 
  • Empower Chiefs to regulate tree felling in settlement areas
 Environmental Issue: Deforestation
Agricultural Expansion
  • Improve land productivity 
  • Introduce and promote alternative high value crops 
  • Amend legislation on leased land for agricultural use 
  • Diversify Economic Base
Uncontrolled Bush fires
  • Create awareness on the negative effect of bushfires
Fuelwood Extraction
  • Plant multipurpose trees around homestead 
  • Establish individual woodlots 
  • Establish Village woodlots 
  • Improve management of forest resources on customary land 
  • Promote use of fuelwood saving stoves 
  • Diversify sources of energy 
  • Reduce tariffs on electricity and paraffin 
  • Accelerate rural electrification programme 
  • Stop use of indigenous fuelwood in industries 
  • Promote use of softwood for fuel and charcoal 
  • Establish demand driven woodlots
 Environmental Issue: Deforestation
Inadequate management of Public and Private Forests and Encroachment
  • Improve management skills 
  • Promote participatory management of forests and game Reserves 
  • Create awareness on importance of forest/game reserves 
  • Improve management of private forests
Infrastructure Development
  • (See 4~2.4 on Soil Erosion)
 Environmental Issue: Degradation of Surface and Ground Water
Waste Production and disposal ·
  • Raise environmental awareness and legislate appropriate laws governing waste production and disposal 
  • Reduce contamination of water arising from transportation and storage of waste 
  • Reduce contamination of water due to improper disposal of industrial waste
Human and Municipal Waste Disposal
  • Minimize waste at source 
  • Improve waste collection and transportation of municipal wastes 
  • Improve conveyance and disposal of wastes
Agrochemical Runoff
  • Minimize use and run off of agro-chemicals 
  • Proper handling of agro-chemicals
 Environmental Issue: Degradation of Surface and Ground Water
Sedimentation / Siltation ·
  • See paragraphs 4.2 and 4.3 on soil erosion and deforestation
Oil spillage
  • Minimize oil spillage by vessels and tankers 
  • Halt water contamination by oil from garages 
  • Arrest depletion of Malawi's water resources
Depletion of Surface and Groundwater Resources  
 Environmental Issue: Depletion of Fish Stock
Destruction of Breeding Grounds
  • Reduce sediment load in both river and lake water 
  • Combat water pollution 
  • Improve information on fish species, fish stocks and regeneration capacities 
  • Halt spreading of non-indigenous fish and weeds 
  • Increase local knowledge on fish breeding and biology in general
Over fishing
  • Control and monitor number of current fishermen and those entering the fishing industry 
  • Halt use of non-sustainable fishing technology 
  • Enforce 'off-season' regulation 
  • Promote fish farming technology
 Environmental Issue: Depletion of Fish Stock
Obstruction of fish migration in rivers
  • Reduce sediment load in rivers and halt use of non-sustainable fishing practices
 Environmental Issue: Threat to Biodiversity
High Population Growth
  • This is addressed in paragraph 4.9
Habitat Loss
  • Control of agricultural expansion 
  • Halt Encroachment into protected areas 
  • Destruction of important, fragile but unprotected ecosystems 
  • Stop bush fires 
  • Promote Economy Diversification 
  • Address low agricultural productivity 
  • Prevent loss of land races 
  • Empower local leaders in biodiversity conservation
Policy Failures
  • Diversification of the economy (refer to section 
  • Improve agricultural productivity refer to section 4.3.1 
  • Reduce loss of land races 
  • Involve local leaders in biodiversity conservation
 Environmental Issue: Threat to Biodiversity
Illegal Exploitation of Forestry and Wildlife Resources
  • Eliminate poaching 
  • Legalize access to protected areas
Loss of Freshwater Biodiversity
  • Actions to address this problem are covered in paragraph 4.5
 Environmental Issue: Human habitat degradation
Planning and Provision of Housing and Basic Services
  • Promote low cost housing scheme in both urban and rural areas 
  • Speed up allocation of plots for both traditional housing areas and medium to low density areas 
  • Review development charges to create incentive framework for plot development and provide basic services to facilitate speedy plot development 
  • Review ground and property rents
Water Supply
  • Improved provision of water supply 
  • This is addressed in section 4.4.2
Waste Disposal  
 Environmental Issue: High Population Growth
Fertility Rate
  • Promote intensive female education 
  • Introduce sex education and family planning subjects into the regular curriculum at all levels of education 
  • Increase the general literacy rates 
  • Empower women in decision-making 
  • Promote population/family planning programmes 
  • Control unplanned, unwanted pregnancies
Immigration and Migration
  • Control of immigration 
  • Create rural off-farm employment opportunities
 Environmental Issue: Air Pollution
Gas Emissions from the transport sector
  • Reduce gas emissions from the transport sector
Emission of Pollutants and Particulate matter from industries and mines
  • Improve ambient air quality in industrial establishments 
  • Improve air quality in the work environment
Bush fires  
Air quality pollution
  • Discourage deliberate bushfires 
  • Control air quality pollution
 Environmental Issue: Environmental Education and Public Information
Environmental Information Centres
  • Establishment of environmental information centres
Environmental Education
  • Enhancing environmental subjects in the regular curriculum 
  • Disseminate public information and raise awareness on the environment

Contents | Foreword | Acknowledgments 
Chapters:  | One | Two | Three | Four | Five | Six | Seven
Lists: | Figures | Maps | Tables | Appendices